For previous topics covering delegated Proof of Stake see Part 1 DPoS: The Protocols, Part 2 DPoS: The Validators, and Part 3 DPos: The Delegates.

A definitive uptick in Proof of Stake (PoS) occurred in 2020. Proof of Stake (PoS) is a consensus model different from the first-generation cryptocurrencies’ Proof of Work (PoW) model. Included with PoS is every variant such as Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), Liquid Proof of Stake (LPoS), Nominated Proof of Stake (NPoS), and Bonded Proof of Stake (BPoS) For detailed explanation of each consensus model listed see Stakin’s article, “The Proof of Stake Guidebook.” …


For previous topics covering delegated Proof of Stake see Part 1 DPoS: The Protocols and Part 2 DPoS: The Validators.

Delegates are Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) token holders who stake and vote for block producing Validators. Staking involves locking up tokens in a wallet or web-based portal to gain rights to vote and/or receive block rewards. Although staked tokens are locked from trading, the tokens remain in possession of the owner. …


To read Part 1 of this series, click DPoS: The Protocols.

For the sake of clarity, throughout this article, the primary designation given to those who are responsible for committing new blocks to the chain is Validator. Other names used interchangeably with Validators are Witnesses, Block Producers, Super Representatives, Harvesters, Consensus Nodes, Fishermen, and even Bakers!

To meet the demand of 24/7 uptime network, computation, memory, and security of a global virtual machine/web, Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), or some form of DPoS consensus, proved the optimal solution thus far in blockchain development.

Earlier attempts at pure Proof of Stake…


What is Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS)

DPoS is a system with a fixed number of elected Validators (also called Block Producers or Witnesses). Block Producers are selected to validate transactions, alternate turns to create blocks, and secure the blockchain from malicious actors. Block producers are voted into Validator positions by the network’s token holders (electors). Each protocol determines the weight of votes (usually number of tokens staked) and the number of Validator candidates electors can choose per cycle. Users normally stake the tokens they own in a special wallet developed for the specific blockchain protocol. Alternatively, voters can choose to proxy their stake to another voter…


In response to Marc Andreessen’s “IT’S TIME TO BUILD”, I composed a postmortem of the article and supplemented my ideas for moving forward.

Marc is co-founder of the Silicon Valley venture capital firm Adreessen Horowitz (a16z), a firm that exudes excellence, and I became a bigger fan when they created a fund dedicated to Distributed Ledger Technology.

The visionary who realized “Software Is Eating the World”, also recognizes the need to build America back to its preeminence and lead the Western world to rediscover greatness.

Yet it begs the question, what are our current set of values? Is it enough…


During the COVID-19 pandemic, articles and “experts” continue to suggest doubling-down in equity markets even while the main street economy is sinking. Although there are quality investment opportunities, they must be evaluated more carefully as most asset classes will not behave as they have in the past due to hefty government interventions. Most calls for investment action through the end of 2020 are premature even to a point of naivete. Political uncertainty combined with unchartered monetary and fiscal policy requires unprecedented thinking. The real downward trend of many market sectors hasn’t begun.

So, what to do with cash reserves in…

Eric Kazee

Alpha Stake Solutions Founder. https://alphastake.solutions Distributed Ledger Technologies Advocate. Futurist. Family Offices & HNWI Advisor.

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